Although often considered a negligible luxury, ergonomics represent an indisputable human and economic interest. Indeed, in an environment rich in resources such as the school environment, knowledge of ergonomics will allow optimal use of these to be achieved.
by Bouchra BENTALEB, Master 2 student in training engineering, educational technologies and communication at Mohammed Premier Oujda University - Morocco.
The term ergonomics is derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (rules) to mean the science of work. According to the international association of ergonomics IEA (2000), ergonomics is "the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions between humans and the other elements of a system, and the implementation in the conception of theories, principles, methods and relevant data to improve human well-being and the overall efficiency of systems ”.
It is a discipline that today applies to all aspects of human activity in order to design tools, machines, work environments and devices that can be used with maximum efficiency, safety and comfort. In schools we talk school ergonomics. The latter is interested in all the elements of the educational process, thus dealing with the work relationships of the two main actors (teachers and students), the tools, the equipment, the material used and the environment, without forgetting the social and temporal conditions. where educational projects take place.
As a discipline, ergonomics has three areas of specialization:
This first area relates to characteristics that relate to the physical activity of people. In the educational field, for example, it will take care of improving the comfort of students in the classroom.
This second area studies the optimization of socio-technical systems (structures, regulations, etc.). An example of this type of ergonomics in the school environment is the fact of optimizing the organization of spaces such as classrooms.
This third area deals with mental processes such as the user's mental activity of observation and processing of information in relation to a product or another person. Used in education, this type of ergonomics will make it possible, among other things, to make the choice of the most adequate information interfaces and the best suited to the students.
To conclude, ergonomics makes it possible to find harmony between human factors and context in order to improve school situations.